Experiments




Experiments Initiated in 2015

Experiments Initiated in 2014

Experiments Initiated in 2013

Experiments Initiated in 2012

Experiments Initiated in 2011

Experiments Initiated in 2010

Experiments Initiated in 2009

Experiments Initiated in 2008

Experiments Initiated in 2007

Experiments Initiated in 2006

Experiments Initiated in 2005

Experiments Initiated in 2004

Experiments Initiated in 2003

Experiments Initiated in 2002





































































































Title: Training Goats for Cedar Consumption

Experiment Number:GA-02-01

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:G. Animut, A. L. Goetsch, R. C. Merkel, L. J. Dawson, R. Puchala,
and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine effects on later eastern red cedar consumption of stepwise increases in the dietary level of cedar, as compared with an abrupt dietary introduction of a set level of cedar or no prior cedar exposure

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Title: Energy for Growth of Meat Goats

Experiment Number:CTZ-02-02

Project Number:OKLX0003833

Investigators:C.-T. Zheng, I. Tovar-Luna, R. Puchala, G. Detweiler, A. L.
Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects and interactions of goat genotype and diet quality on:
    • Fasting heat production.
    • Maintenance energy (ME) requirements.
    • Efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance.
    • ME requirement for growth.
    • Efficiency of ME utilization for growth.
  • Determine the relationship between heart rate and heat production determined via indirect calorimetry, measured with ad libitum and maintenance feeding of different qualities of diets and when fasting

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Title: Quality Characteristics and Yield Predictive Models of Goat Milk Cheese

Experiment Number:SZ-02-03

Project Number:OKLX-1999-04114

Investigators:S. Zeng, K. A. Soryal, D. van Hekken, B. Bah, and B. Min

Objectives:

  • Determine the effects of milk composition and somatic cell counts on the quality and yield of goat cheese and develop yield predictive models for goat cheeses (French soft, semi-hard, and hard).
  • Characterize semi-hard and hard cheeses in terms of composition, microstructure, rheological properties, protein profiles, and sensory characteristics as affected by seasonal variations of milk composition and property changes during cheese storage.

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Title: Flushing of Meat Goats

Experiment Number:RM-02-04

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:R. C. Merkel, G. Abebe, A. L. Goetsch, L. J. Dawson, R. Puchala,
C. F. Rosenkrans, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine influences of short-term supplementation of meat goat does in low or moderate/high body condition with high levels of protein sources of low ruminal degradability and rich on branch chain amino acids and arginine on reproductive performance.

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Title: Evaluation of Stocking Rate Effects with Pastures that Contain Various Forbs and Grasses being Co-Grazed by Goats and Sheep and Subsequent Performance with an Energy-Rich Diet - First Grazing Season

Experiment Number:GA-02-05

Project Number:OKLX-0003832

Investigators:G. Animut, A. L. Goetsch, G. E. Aiken, C. R. Krehbiel, R.
Puchala, C.-T. Zheng, G. Detweiler, J. O. Joseph, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Evaluate stocking rate effects on diet selection and performance of goats and sheep co-grazing pastures containing various forbs and grasses and assess subsequent growth with consumption of a high concentrate diet.

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Title: Potential Anthelmintic Effects in Goats of Condensed Tannins

Experiment Number:BM-02-06

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:B. R. Min, S. H. Hart, D. Miller, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine effects of continuous or intermittent grazing of forage containing condensed tannins (Sericea lespedeza) on internal parasites in goats

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Title: Use of Goats for Sustainable Vegetation Management in Grazing Lands - First Grazing Season

Experiment Number:JJ-02-07

Project Number:LS01-119

Investigators:J. O. Joseph, A. L. Goetsch, S. P. Hart, T. A. Gipson, R. C.
Merkel, and G. Detweiler

Objectives:

  • General: Investigate effects of various goat management methods for vegetation rehabilitation/control in different grazing land settings in the south-central US, demonstrate and display appropriate means of vegetation management with goats, and provide education in other related goat management areas.
  • Specific: Determine effects of different goat grazing treatments on vegetation conditions and animal performance at six Oklahoma sites, in cooperation with the Caddo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Greater Seminole, Osage, and Sac and Fox Nations. Treatments include different stocking rates, rotational grazing, co-grazing with sheep or cattle, no livestock grazing, herbicides, and mowing.

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Title: Energy Requirements for Lactation by Goats

Experiment Number:ITL-02-08

Project Number:OKLX0003833

Investigators:I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch, C.-T. Zheng, R. Puchala, and T.
Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine energy requirements for milk production by Alpine does in different stages of lactation and consuming diets differing in concentrate level, via respiration calorimetry and heart rate.

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Title: Energy Requirements for Mohair Fiber Production

Experiment Number:CTZ-02-09

Project Number:OKLX0003833

Investigators:C.-T. Zheng, A. L. Goetsch, I. Tovar-Luna, R. Puchala, and T.
Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine energy requirements for mohair fiber production by Angora goats consuming different quality diets via respiration calorimetry.

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Title: Caseous Lymphadenitis in Dairy Goats

Experiment Number:EL-02-10

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:E. Loetz, L. J. Dawson, J. Saluki, and J. Hayes

Objective:

  • Determine predisposing factors for the prevalence of clinical manifestations of Caseous lymphadenitis and effectiveness of using vaccination to control EM>Caseous lymphadenitis abscesses.

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Title: Gastrointestinal Parasite Control by Grazing Management

Experiment Number:DM-02-11

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:D. K. Miller, S. P. Hart, and B. R. Min

Objective:

  • Compare set stocked with rotationally grazed goats for differences in worm burdens as measured by egg per gram counts and by nematode counts in tracer animals.

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Title: Condensed Tannins and Ruminant Methane Production

Experiment Number:RP-02-12

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:R. Puchala, B. R. Min, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Compare methane production by Angora goats consuming the condensed tannin-containing forage, Sericea lespedeza, with that by goats ingesting forage without condensed tannins via respiration calorimetry.

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Title: Protein Requirements of Goats for Lactation

Experiment Number:IN-02-13

Project Number:OKLX-9803092

Investigators:I. V. Nsahlai, A. L. Goetsch, J. Luo, J. E. Moore, M. L. Galyean,
C. L. Ferrell, Z. B. Owens, T. Sahlu, and F. N. Owens

Objective:

  • Develop a data set of animal performance (e.g., milk production and composition, live weight, and live weight gain) and of crude protein degradability properties and ruminal fermentable energy concentration with numerous dietary ingredients for prediction of ruminal outflow of potentially degradable dietary protein, in order to determine metabolizable protein requirements of goats for lactation.

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Title: Protein Requirements of Goats for Growth

Experiment Number:IN-02-14

Project Number:OKLX-9803092

Investigators:I. V. Nsahlai, A. L. Goetsch, J. Luo, J. E. Moore, M. L. Galyean,
C. L. Ferrell, Z. B. Owens, T. Sahlu, and F. N. Owens

Objective:

  • Develop a data set of animal performance (e.g., live weight and live weight gain) and of crude protein degradability properties and ruminal fermentable energy concentration with numerous dietary ingredients for prediction of ruminal outflow of potentially degradable dietary protein, in order to determine metabolizable protein requirements of goats for growth.

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Title: Energy Requirements of Goats for Maintenance and Growth

Experiment Number:JL-02-15

Project Number:OKLX-9803092

Investigators:J. Luo, A. L. Goetsch, J. E. Moore, I. V. Nsahlai, M. L. Galyean,
C. L. Ferrell, Z. B. Owens, T. Sahlu, and F. N. Owens

Objective:

  • Develop a data set of animal performance (e.g., live weight and live weight gain) and energy intake to determine metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance and growth of preweaning goats, growing goats of three different biotypes, and mature goats.

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Title: Energy and Protein Requirements of Mohair Fiber-Producting
Angora Goats

Experiment Number:JL-02-16

Project Number:OKLX-9803092

Investigators:J. Luo, A. L. Goetsch, J. E. Moore, I. V. Nsahlai, M. L. Galyean,
C. L. Ferrell, Z. B. Owens, T. Sahlu, and F. N. Owens

Objective:

  • Develop a data set of animal performance (e.g., live weight, live weight gain, and mohair fiber production) and metabolizable energy and protein intakes to determine metabolizable energy and protein requirements for maintenance, growth, and mohair fiber production by Angora goats.

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Title: Prediction of Feed Intake by Goats

Experiment Number:JM-02-17

Project Number:OKLX-9803092

Investigators:J. E. Moore, A. L. Goetsch, J. Luo, I.V. Nsahlai, M. L. Galyean, C.
L. Ferrell, Z. B. Owens, T. Sahlu, and F. N. Owens

Objective:

  • Develop a data set of animal and dietary characteristics to develop equations for prediction of feed intake by goats.

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Title: The Detection of Mastitis in Dairy Goats - On-Farm Testing (Year
2)

Experiment Number:GT-02-18

Project Number:AR01.1-110

Investigators:G. M. Tomita and S. P. Hart

Objective:

  • Determine the suitability of the appropriate mastitis detection method(s) for goats identified earlier for use as a regulatory standard to monitor milk quality and goat udder health under field conditions.

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Title: Rumen-Protected Betaine and Low-Quality Forage Diets for Goats

Experiment Number:VB-02-19

Project Number:OKLX-1999-04159

Investigators:V. Banskalieva and R. Puchala

Objective:

  • Determine effects of rumen-protected betaine on blood metabolite concentrations and nutrient net flux across splanchnic tissues in meat goats consuming low-quality forage.

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Title: Enhanced Goat Production Systems for the Southern United States
- Phase 1

Experiment Number:MV-02-20

Project Number:2011-52101-11430

Investigators:M. Villaquiran and T. A. Gipson

Objective:

  • Develop a vehicle to appraise use of available resources and production conditions in different goat production systems.

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Title: Pathogenicity of Tapeworms

Experiment Number:DM-02-21

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:D. K. Miller, S. P. Hart, T. A. Gipson, and L. J. Dawson

Objective:

  • Determine if tapeworms in goats affect growth
  • Compare effects, if existent, of tapeworms on growth with
    those of nematodes

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Title: Anthelmintic Resistance in Goats in Oklahoma

Experiment Number:DM-02-22


Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU


Period:2002

Investigators:D. K. Miller, T. A. Gipson, S. P. Hart, and R. C. Merkel

Objectives:


  • Survey resistance to anthelmintics on goats farms in Oklahoma
  • Determine correlations between resistance and management factors
    • Closed versus open flocks
    • Deworming programs (frequency, time, alternation of products)
  • Identify species of nematodes that are resistant and susceptible

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Title:Energy Requirements for Gestation in Crossbred Boer × Spanish
Does

Experiment Number:ITL-03-01

Project Number:OKLX-9803092 (00-38814-9500)

Investigators:I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine energy requirements and efficiency of energy use for pregnancy at 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation with litter sizes of 1, 2, and 3

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Title:Milk Production by Boer × Spanish and Spanish Doelings With
Different Numbers of Kids - Year 1

Experiment Number:RCM-03-02

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:R. C. Merkel, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, L. J. Dawson, and R.
Puchala

Objectives:

  • Characterize milk production and the lactation curve of Boer × Spanish and Spanish doelings with 1 or 2 kids while on a low-moderate plane of nutrition

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Title:Nutrient Requirements of Goats: Developed Equations, Other
Considerations, and Future Research to Improve Them

Experiment Number:AG-03-03

Project Number:OKLX-9803092 (98-38814-6241)

Investigator:A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Present the recommended nutrient requirement expressions based on the project "Nutrient Requirements of Goats: An Update and Reevaluation
  • Suggest means of considering factors and conditions not previously thoroughly addressed in the project that can influence nutrient requirements, until more appropriate ones are available
  • Identify areas in which further research could lead to development of more accurate nutrient requirement expressions for goats

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Title:Evaluation of Stocking Rate Effects with Pastures that Contain Various Forbs and Grasses being Co-Grazed by Goats and Sheep and Subsequent Performance with an Energy-Rich Diet - Second Grazing Season

Experiment Number:GA-03-04

Project Number:OKLX-0003832 (00-38814-9502)

Investigators:G. Animut, A. L. Goetsch, G. E. Aiken, K. R. Krehbiel, R.
Puchala, G. Detweiler, J. O. Joseph, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Evaluate stocking rate effects on diet selection, performance, energy expenditure, grazing behavior, and body composition of goats and sheep co-grazing pastures containing various forbs and grasses and assess subsequent growth with consumption of a high concentrate diet

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Title:Use of Goats for Sustainable Vegetation Management in Grazing Lands - Second Grazing Season

Experiment Number:JJ-03-05

Project Number:LS01-119

Investigators:J. O. Joseph, S. P. Hart, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. C.
Merkel, and G. Detweiler

Objectives:

  • General: Investigate effects of various goat management methods for vegetation rehabilitation/control in different grazing land settings in the south-central US, demonstrate and display appropriate means of vegetation management with goats, and provide education in other related goat management areas.
  • Specific: Determine effects of different goat grazing treatments on vegetation conditions and animal performance at six Oklahoma sites, in cooperation with the Caddo, Cherokee, Choctaw, Greater Seminole, Osage, and Sac and Fox Nations. Treatments include different stocking rates, rotational grazing, co-grazing with sheep or cattle, no livestock grazing, herbicides, and mowing.

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Title:Energy Requirements for Milk Production by Goats at Different Stages of Lactation

Experiment Number:ITL-03-06

Project Number:OKLX0003833 (00-38814-9500)

Investigators:I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine maintenance and lactation energy requirements for Alpine does in different stages of lactation via respiration calorimetry and heart rate

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Title:Effects of the Number of Crossbred Boer Wethers Per Pen on Performance and Feeding Behavior

Experiment Number:AG-03-07

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:A. L. Goetsch, G. Detweiler, T. A. Gipson, R. C. Merkel, and T.
Sahlu

  • Objectives:Determine effects of the number of growing crossbred Boer wethers on performance (ADG and gain efficiency) and feeding behavior (feed intake, number of feeder visits per day, feed intake per visit, feeder occupation time per visit, feeder occupation time per day, feed consumption rate, total time feeder occupied, temporal distribution of feeding pattern) with a diet moderate in concentrate level.

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Title:Feed Intake Prediction Equations for Goats

Experiment Number:AG-03-08

Project Number:OKLX-9803092 (98-38814-6241)

Investigators:A. L. Goetsch and J. Luo

Objectives:

  • Develop feed intake prediction equations for lactating, Angora, growing, and mature goats based on a compiled database of treatment mean observations from the literature

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Title:Effects of Walking and Forage Consumption on Energy Expenditure by Goats

Experiment Number:BT-03-09

Project Number:OKLX0003833 (00-38814-9500)

Investigators:T. Berhan, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, and R. C. Merkel

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of standing vs walking at different speeds and interactions between standing, walking, and walking speed and forage ingestion on energy expenditure, heart rate, and their ratio

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Title:Effects of Feed Restriction on Heat Production by Goats

Experiment Number:ITL-03-10

Project Number:OKLX0003833 (00-38814-9500)

Investigators:I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine how a slight feed restriction below maintenance impacts fed and fasting heat production with meat goat wethers near maturity

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Title:Flushing of Meat Goats - Year 2

Experiment Number:RM-03-11

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:R. C. Merkel, A. L. Goetsch, T. Berhan, L. J. Dawson, M. Looper,
C. F. Rosenkrans, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine influences of short-term supplementation of meat goat does in low or moderate/high body condition with high levels of rumen undegraded intake protein on reproductive performance.

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Title:Characterization of Estrous Traits of Doelings and Does

Experiment Number:RM-03-12

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:R. C. Merkel, M. Looper, C. F. Rosenkrans, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Compare estrous activity of synchronized and unsynchronized Alpine doelings and does with an automated estrus detection system

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Title:Effects of Length of Grazing on Energy Use by Growing Meat Goats

Experiment Number:BT-03-13

Project Number:OKLX0003833 (00-38814-9500)

Investigators:T. Berhan, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, and R. C. Merkel

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of different lengths of grazing or pasture access (i.e., 4, 8, or 24 h) on forage intake and digestibility, grazing behavior, distance traveled, body composition, energy retention, and energy expenditure by growing Boer x Spanish wether goats

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Title:Enhanced Goat Production Systems for the Southern United States - Phase 2

Experiment Number:MV-03-14

Project Number:2011-52101-11430

Investigators:M. Villaquiran and T. A. Gipson

Objective:

  • Provide training to collaborating institutions in use of a web-based simulation program to appraise use of available resources and production conditions in different goat production systems.

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Title:Web-Based Goat Nutrient Requirement Calculation System

Experiment Number:TG/AG-03-15

Project Number:OKLX-9803092 (98-38814-6241)

Investigator:T. A. Gipson and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Develop a simple and user-friendly web-based goat nutrient requirement calculation system based on results of the project "Nutrient Requirements of Goats: An Update and Reevaluation

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Title:Does Estrous Synchronization Change Breeding Activity?

Experiment Number:RM-03-16

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:R. C. Merkel, M. Looper, C. F. Rosenkrans, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Compare visual estrous detection with use of an automated estrous detection system and characterize estrous activity of Alpine does
    and doelings

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Title:Relationships Between Body Condition Score and Body Weight in Goats

Experiment Number:MV-04-01

Project Number:2011-52101-11430

Investigators:M. Villaquiran, T. A. Gipson, R. C. Merkel, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Develop relationships between body condition score and body weight for different types of goats throughout the year with different planes of nutrition and stages of production

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Title:Effects of Forage Level and Physical Form of the Diet and Method of Feeding on Performance and Feeding Behavior by Growing
Crossbred Boer Wethers

Experiment Number:AG-04-02

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:A. L. Goetsch, G. Detweiler, T. A. Gipson, R. C. Merkel, and T.
Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of dietary forage level (100 vs 50%), physical nature of the diet (pelleted vs loose), method of feeding (Calan gates vs automated feed intake recording system), and their interactions on feeding feed intake, average daily gain, and gain efficiency of growing crossbred Boer wethers.

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Title:Enhanced Goat Production Systems for the Southern United States - Phase 3

Experiment Number:MV-04-03

Project Number:2011-52101-11430

Investigators:M. Villaquiran and T. A. Gipson

Objectives:

  • Determine user-friendly means of deriving inputs for use of a web-based simulation program to appraise use of available resources and production conditions in different goat production systems

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Title:Composition of Tissue Loss and Gain by Mature Meat Goats

Experiment Number:TN-04-04

Project Number:2003-38814-13923

Investigators:T. Ngwa, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu, R. C. Merkel, G. Detweiler, T.
A. Gipson, and R. Puchala

Objectives:

  • Determine the composition of tissue loss by mature meat goats in high body condition when placed on a low nutritional plane
  • Determine the composition of tissue gain by mature meat goats in low body condition when placed on a high nutritional plane
  • Develop relationships between body condition score and body composition for mature meat goats
  • Develop equations to predict body composition of mature meat goats based on shrunk body weight and urea space

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Title:Effects of Tethering on Forage Intake and Grazing Behavior With High Forage Quality and Availability

Experiment Number:TN-04-05

Project Number:USDA-CSREES-NRI 03-03289

Investigators:A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, and G. Detweiler

Objectives:

  • Investigate effects of grazing unrestrained versus tethered on grazing behavior, energy expenditure, forage intake, and composition of forage selected by meat goats on pastures with high forage quality and available mass

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Title:Effects of Creep Grazing by Meat Goats of Pastures With the Tree Legume Mimosa

Experiment Number:MY-04-06

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:A. L. Goetsch, R. C. Merkel, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Investigate performance effects of creep grazing by meat goat kids of pastures with the tree legume mimosa compared with different stocking rates on mixed grass/forb pastures

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Title:Composition of Tissue Gain by Growing Meat Goats

Experiment Number:TN-04-07

Project Number:2003-38814-13923

Investigators:T. Ngwa, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu, R. C. Merkel, G. Detweiler, T.
A. Gipson, and R. Puchala

Objective:

  • Determine the composition of tissue gain by growing Boer × Spanish and Spanish meat goats at different ages and on different planes of nutrition
  • Develop relationships between body condition score and body composition for growing meat goats
  • Develop equations to predict body composition of growing meat goats based on shrunk body weight and urea space

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Title:Preliminary Research on An Alternative Method of Inactivating CAEV in Colostrum

Experiment Number:KW-04-08

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:K. E. Washburn, Asefa, R. N. Streeter, L. J. Dawson, J. T. Saliki, T. Lehenbauer, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Investigate treatment of colostrum with phenothiazine dye and light to deactivate CAEV

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Title:Milk Production by Boer × Spanish and Spanish Doelings With Different Numbers of Kids - Year 2

Experiment Number:RCM-04-08

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:R. C. Merkel, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, L. J. Dawson, and R.
Puchala

Objectives:

  • Characterize milk production and the lactation curve of Boer × Spanish and Spanish doelings with 1 or 2 kids while on a low-moderate plane of nutrition

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Title:Effects of Tethering on Forage Intake and Grazing Behavior With Low Forage Quality and Availability

Experiment Number:AG-04-09

Project Number:USDA-CSREES-NRI 03-03289

Investigators:A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, and G. Detweiler

Objectives:

  • Investigate effects of grazing unrestrained versus tethered on grazing behavior, energy expenditure, forage intake, and composition of forage selected by meat goats on pastures with low forage quality and available mass

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Title:Effects of Tethering on Forage Intake and Grazing Behavior With High Quality Forage

Experiment Number:AP-04-09

Project Number:USDA-CSREES-NRI 03-03289

Investigators:A. Patra, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu, and G. Detweiler

Objectives:

  • Investigate effects of grazing unrestrained versus tethered on grazing behavior, energy expenditure, forage intake, and composition of forage selected by meat goats on pastures with high quality forage

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Title:Effects of Extended Storage and Season on Microbiological Quality and Composition of Goat Milk

Experiment Number:SZ-04-10

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:S. Zeng, and B. Bah

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of lactation season and extended storage time on farm on composition and microbiological and sensory qualities of goat milk and to monitor the changes of pH, bacteria counts and processing characteristics of goat milk.

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Title:Effects of Vacuum-Packaging and Storage Temperature on Quality and Shelf-Life of Goat Milk Soft Cheese

Experiment Number:SZ-04-11

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:S. Zeng, B. Bah, R. Puchala, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of vacuum-packaging and storage on quality and shelf-life of goat milk soft cheese and to monitor the changes of pH, bacteria counts, and sensory properties of cheese during storage

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Title:Effects of Level of Feed Intake on Partitioning of Nutrients to Tissue and Mohair Fiber Growth in Growing Angora Goats

Experiment Number:RP-04-12

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of different levels of feed intake on nutrient partitioning to tissue and mohair fiber gain by growing Angora goats, as well as effects on subsequent partitioning with a high nutritional plane.

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Title:Use of Goats for Sustainable Vegetation Management in Grazing Lands - Third Grazing Season

Experiment Number:SH-04-13

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:S. P. Hart, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of different goat grazing treatments on vegetation conditions and animal performance at three Oklahoma sites, in cooperation with the Cherokee, Greater Seminole, and Osage Nations.

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Title:Blood Constituents as Potential Indicators of Meat Goat Buck Test Performance

Experiment Number:AA-04-14

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:A. Asmare, T. A. Gipson, C. F. Rosenkrans, A. L. Goetsch, R. C. Merkel, and D. Kiesler

Objectives:

  • Determine relationships between blood constituents (LDH isozymes, G6PDH isozymes, serum proteins, leptin, T3, T4, cortisol, IGF-1, and testosterone) determined before the meat goat buck performance test and performance during the test, in order to assess if one or a combination of such measures have potential to predict test performance.

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Title:Effects of Nutritional Plane on Energy Expenditure by Meat Goats

Experiment Number:AA-04-15

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:A. Asmare, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, R. C. Merkel, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine to what degree can meat goats decrease EE to maintain body energy status, how does initial body condition of meat goats affect the ability to decrease EE and maintain body energy status, how rapidly does EE change after a decrease in ME intake to achieve constant body energy status, and how rapidly does EE increase after an increase in ME intake.

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Title:Effects of Protein Deficiency on Gastrointestinal Mucosal Tissue and Responses to Nematode Infection in Goats

Experiment Number:ZW-04-17

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:Z. Wang, S. Hart, L. J. Dawson, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

To determine effects of varied protein intake by goats on:

  • apoptosis and proliferation of mucosal (columnar epithelial, goblet, and microfold) cells in the gastrointestinal tract;
  • infection of Haemonchus contortus in the gastrointestinal tract (worm burden and FEC);
  • immune responses, measured by ratios of mast, macrophage, eosinophil, and dendritic cells in gastrointestinal tissue, and production of antibodies against parasitic antigens.

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Title:Effects of Different Stocking Rates and Creep Grazing of Mimosa on Subsequent Performance of Growing Crossbred Boer Kids

Experiment Number:AA-04-18

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:A. Asmare, G. Detweiler, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. C. Merkel, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of preweaning stocking rate and creep grazing of mimosa on subsequent postweaning performance of meat goat kids.

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Title:Evaluation of Infusate Urea Concentration and Plasma Sampling Time to Predict Body Composition in Growing and Mature Goats

Experiment Number:AA-04-19

Project Number:OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators:A. Asmare, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, L. J. Dawson, R. C. Merkel, T. Sahlu, and G. Detweiler

Objectives:

Determine:

  • Most appropriate urea solution concentration for determining body composition of growing and mature goats
  • Appropriate time of plasma sampling
  • Effect of goat age on urea dilution
  • Importance of holding off feed and water

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Title: Quality, Safety, and Shelf-Life of Goat Milk (Liquid, Powdered, and Condensed) on the Market

Experiment Number: SZ-05-01

Project Number: 2004-02587

Investigators: S. Zeng, S. Gilliland, S. Chen, B. Bah, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

  • Establish a comprehensive database of goat milk safety, quality, and shelf-life on the store shelves.
  • Identify the unique values such as CLA of dairy products.
  • Develop and implement biological, biochemical, and(or) physical interventions to control undesirable microbes.
  • Enhance the marketability and profitability of goat milk by improving product microbiological and sensory quality, and by prolonging shelf-life of finished products.
  • Assist store managers and personnel handling goat milk and dairy products by providing information and techniques to maximize milk quality and shelf-life.

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Title: Effects of Extended Lactation (Year-Round) on Quality of Goat Milk and Quality and Texture Characteristics of Cheese

Experiment Number: SZ-05-02

Project Number: 2004-02587

Investigators: S. Zeng, S. Gilliland, S. Chen, B. Bah, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

  • Determine the effect of year-round lactation on milk composition, microbiological quality, and SCC and, subsequently, on the quality and yield of goat cheese (semi-hard).
  • Investigate the influence of extended lactation on cheese in terms of composition, rheological properties, protein profiles, and sensory characteristics.

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Title: Effects of Tethering on Forage Intake and Grazing Behavior With High Forage Mass and Nutritive Value

Experiment Number: AP-05-03

Project Number: USDA-CSREES-NRI 03-03289

Investigators: A. Patra, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu, and G. Detweiler

Objectives:

  • Investigate effects of grazing unrestrained versus tethered on grazing behavior, energy expenditure, forage intake, and composition of forage selected by meat goats on pastures with high forage mass and nutritive value.

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Title: Composition of Tissue Gain and Loss By Lactating Alpine Goats

Experiment Number: TN-05-04

Project Number: 2003-03779

Investigators: A.T. Ngwa, A.T. Goetsch, T. Sahlu, Puchala, I. Tovar-Luna, L. J. Dawson, G. Detweiler

Objectives:

  • Evaluate the effect of dietary forage level on the composition of tissue being gained or mobilized in lactating dairy Alpine does during the first 8 months of lactation.
  • Develop equations that will enable the prediction of body composition of dairy goats from shrunk body weight and urea space determinations.

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Title: Methane Emission by Goats Consuming Different Sources of Condensed Tannins

Experiment Number: GA-05-05

Project Number: 2004-02606

Investigators: G. Animut, R. Puchala, A.L. Goestch, T. Sahlu, V. H. Varel, and J. Wells

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of consuming different condensed tannin sources on the ruminal microflora and methane emission, digestibility, nitrogen and energy balance, and energy expenditure by goats.

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Title: Effects of Fertilization, Supplementation, and Mimosa Presence on Performance of Meat Goat Does and Suckling Kids Grazing Grass/Forb Pastures

Experiment Number: RM-05-06

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: R. C. Merkel, G. Detweiler, A. L. Goetsch, G. E. Aiken, E. Loetz, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of supplementation, fertilization, and mimosa tree presence on performance of meat goat does and suckling twin kids grazing grass/forb pastures.

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Title: Effects of Grazing, Confinement, Stocking Rate, Diet Nutritive Value, and Level of Feed Intake on Compensatory Growth of Boer Kids

Experiment Number: AG-05-07

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. Detweiler, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine differences between grazing and confinement in compensatory growth.
  • Determine effects of stocking rate on compensatory growth.
  • Determine effects of level of forage intake in confinement on compensatory growth.
  • Compare limited intake of a concentrate-based diet with forage ingestion on compensatory growth.

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Title: Effects of Management Practices During Suckling That Influence Grazing Performance on Subsequent Kid Growth and Feeding Behavior in Confinement

Experiment Number: TG-05-08

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: T. A. Gipson, A. L. Goetsch, G. Detweiler, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of suckling growth while grazing of fertilization, supplementation, and mimosa presence on subsequent growth performance and feeding behavior when consuming a diet high in nutritive value with an automated feeding system.

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Title: Use of Goats for Sustainable Vegetation Management in Grazing Lands - Fourth Grazing Season

Experiment Number: SH-05-10

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: S. P. Hart, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of different goat grazing treatments on vegetation conditions and animal performance at three Oklahoma sites, in cooperation with the Cherokee, Greater Seminole, and Osage Nations.

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Title: Effect of CLA Supplementation on milk and cheese yield and composition in dairy goats

Experiment Number: MR-05-12

Project Number: 2004-02579

Investigators: M. Rovai, T. A. Gipson, S. Zeng, A. L. Goetsch, D. Bauman, and A. Lock

Objectives:

  • Determine the effect of rumen-protected trans-10, cis-12 CLA supplementation upon milk yield and composition in dairy goats and subsequently on cheese yield and quality.

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Title: Methane Emission by Goats Consuming Sorghum-Sudangrass and Kobe Lespedeza

Experiment Number: GA-05-13

Project Number: 2004-02606

Investigators: G. Animut, R. Puchala, A.L. Goestch, T. Sahlu, V. H. Varel, and J. Wells

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of dietary grass (Sorghum-sudangrass) and legume (Kobe lespedeza) levels on the ruminal microflora and methane emission, digestibility, nitrogen and energy balance, and energy expenditure by goats.

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Title: The Effect of Dietary Protein on Tissue GSH Concentration and Cytokine Expression in Goats

Experiment Number: ZW-05-14

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: Z. Wang, N. Wu, S. Hart, R. Merkel, L. Dawson, K. Matand, A. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

To determine the effect of fish meal supplementation in goats on:

  • GSH contents in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, blood, abomasum and intestines.
  • Gene expression of cytokines (IL-2, -4, -5, -10, -13, and IFN- ), glutathione S-transferase, and growth factors (TGF- and IGF-I) in lymph nodes and spleen.

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Title: Effects of Acclimatization on Energy Requirements of Goats

Experiment Number: AP-05-15

Project Number: BIO9-017

Investigators: A. K. Patra, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu, T. A. Gipson, G. Animut, G. Detweiler, J. Hayes, and L. J. Dawson

Objectives:

  • Develop a means of adjusting the maintenance energy requirement of goats for acclimatization.

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Title: Effect of Somatic Cell Count Levels of Goat Milk and Lactation Stage on Sensory Quality, Texture Profile, Proteolysis, and Free Fatty Acid Profiles of Goat Semi-Hard Cheese

Experiment Number: SC-06-01

Project Number: 2004-38814-02587

Investigators: S. Chen, S. Zeng, B. Bah, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of goat milk SCC levels on the composition and cheese yield, FFA profiles, protein hydrolyzation, and texture profiles of semi-hard cheese.
  • Provide information for payment-by-quality schemes, and assist goat cheese producers controlling goat cheese quality.

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Title: Evaluating and Modeling Extended Lactations in Dairy Goats

Experiment Number: MR-06-02

Project Number: 2004-38814-02579

Investigators: M. Rovai, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, L. J. Dawson, S. Chen, S. Zeng, A. V. Capuco, and S. E. Ellis

Objectives:

  • Compare extended versus standard lactations with reference to milk, fat, and protein yield, reproduction and health issues.
  • Mathematically model the lactation curve for extended lactations in dairy goats, with particular emphasis on the effect of extended lactations has upon the shape and scale of the lactation curve.
  • Examine the physiological changes in the mammary gland over the course of an extended lactation.

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Title: Effects of CLA Supplementation and Lactation Parity on Goat Colostrum Profile (Composition, Physicochemical Properties, and Immunocompetence) and Development of Probiotic Goat Colostrum Cheese

Experiment Number: SC-06-03

Project Number: 2004-38814-02587

Investigators: S. Chen, S. Zeng, M. Rovai, T. A. Gipson, and B. Bah

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of rumen-protected trans-10, trans-12CLA supplementation and lactation parity on goat colostrum composition, immunocompetence, and free fatty acids profile.
  • Determine eEffects of CLA and colostrum on the growth of Bifidobacterium in semi-hard cheese.
  • Determine effects of CLA and colostrum adjunct in goat milk on composition and quality of goat cheese.

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Title: Effects of Age upon Repeated Measurement and Level of Body Conditions on Time of Infused Urea Equilibration with Body Water in Meat Goats

Experiment Number: AP-06-04

Project Number: 2003-38814-13923

Investigators: A.K. Patra, A. Asmare, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, L.J. Dawson, G. Detwelier, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Assess the time of plasma urea equilibration at different times on different nutritional planes and to ascertain the relationship between heart rate and time of plasma urea equilibration in goats.

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Title: Methane Emission by Goats Consuming a Condensed Tannin-Containing Forage at Different Frequencies

Experiment Number: GA-06-05

Project Number: 2004-38814-02606

Investigators: G. Animut, R. Puchala, A.L. Goestch, T. Sahlu, V. H. Varel, and J. Wells

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of consuming condensed tannin-containing forage at different frequencies on the ruminal microflora and CH4 emission, digestibility, nitrogen and energy balance, and energy expenditure by goats.

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Title: The Energy Cost of Grazing Activity in Goats Grazing Fescue/Bermudagrass Pastures at High and Low Stocking Rates

Experiment Number: AB-06-06

Project Number: US-3694-05 R

Investigators: A. Beker, A. L. Goetsch, A. Askar, A. Asmare, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, G. Detweiler, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

Overall objective: Develop and evaluate a system(s) to predict metabolizable energy (ME) use for grazing activity (MEa) of goats grazing pastures at high and low SR. Specific objectives:

  • Determine effects of stocking rate and season on available forage mass and forage quality.
  • Determine effects of stocking rate, animal genotype and season on ME intake, energy expenditure, MEa, average daily gain, and grazing behavior of goats.

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Title: Effects of Stocking Rate and Physiological State on Energy Balance and the Energy Requirement for Grazing Activity of Goats

Experiment Number: AAR-06-07

Project Number: 2005-38814-16353

Investigators: A. Askar, A. L. Goetsch, A. Asmare, A. Beker, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, T. A. Gipson, G. Detweiler, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

Overall objective: Develop and evaluate a system to predict the energy cost for grazing activity for ruminants. Specific objectives:

  • Determine effects of stocking rate (affecting forage mass and possibility nutritive value) and physiological state of meat goats on energy expenditure, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, ME used for grazing activity, grazing and walking times, and horizontal and vertical distances traveled.

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Title: The Ability of Goats to Withstand Low Protein Intake

Experiment Number: AA-06-08

Project Number: 2005-38814-16353

Investigators: A. Asmare, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, A. Askar, A. Beker, T. A. Gipson, L. J. Dawson, T. Sahlu, H. C. Freetly, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

  • Determine potential differences between goats and sheep and between two goat genotypes in the ability to utilize low-nitrogen diets by measurements, made with nitrogen-adequate and -limiting forage-based diet, of: total urea synthesis in the body, the rate at which urea enters the gastrointestinal tract, and urinary urea excretion; net flux across splanchnic tissues of nitrogen-containing metabolites as well as other metabolites such as glucose, volatile fatty acids, and oxygen to assess gut and liver energy use; whole body nitrogen and energy balances; extra-splanchnic tissue energy use; and whole body energy expenditure as the feeding period progresses.

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Title: Effects of Ginger and Garlic on Nematode Infection in Goats

Experiment Number: ZW-06-10

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: Z. Wang, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

Determine effects of garlic and ginger on:

  • fecundity of Haemonchus contortus and other parasites in the gastrointestinal tract of goats.
  • immune responses of goats, measured by concentrations of antibodies (IgA, IgM, and IgG); and 3) cytokine gene expression.

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Title: Methane Emission by Goats Consuming a Condensed Tannin-Containing Lespedeza with or without PEG Compared with a Legume and Grass with Little or No Condensed Tannins

Experiment Number: GA-06-11

Project Number: 2004-38814-02606

Investigators: G. Animut, R. Puchala, A.L. Goestch, T. Sahlu, V. H. Varel, and J. Wells

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of consuming CT-containing forage (Sericea lespedeza) with or without PEG, compared with a legume (alfalfa) and grass (sorghum-sudangrass) with little or no CT on the ruminal microflora and CH4 emission, digestibility, nitrogen and energy balance, and energy expenditure by goats.

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Title: Methane Emission by Goats Consuming Hay from a Condensed Tannin-Containing Lespedeza with or without PEG Compared with a Legume and Grass with Little or No Condensed Tannins

Experiment Number: GA-06-12

Project Number: 2004-38814-02606

Investigators: G. Animut, R. Puchala, A.L. Goestch, T. Sahlu, V. H. Varel, and J. Wells

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of consuming hay from a CT-containing forage (Sericea lespedeza), with or without PEG, compared with a legume hay (alfalfa) and grass hay (sorghum-sudangrass) with little or no CT on the ruminal microflora and CH4 emission, digestibility, nitrogen and energy balance, and energy expenditure by goats.

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Title: Healing Characteristics of a Full Thickness Tenectomy Lesion in the Caprine Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon

Experiment Number: HJ-06-13

Project Number: Oklahoma State University College of Veterinary Medicine

Investigators: H. Jann, C. Baumwart, J. Ritchey, L. Dawson, and A. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Document the healing time of a surgically created lesion in the caprine superficial digital flexor tendon.

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Title: Naturally Occurring Precocious Udder Enlargement in Alpine Maiden Doelings and Its Association with Body Growth and Udder Development, Milking Traits, and Reproductive and Productive Performance

Experiment Number: EL-06-14

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: E. Loetz, M. Rovai, L. J. Dawson, J. Hayes, and T. A. Gipson

Objectives:

  • Determine the correlation and nature of the relationship between PUE and response variables describing body growth, reproductive performance, milk production, and milking traits.
  • Characterization of mammary tissue parenchyma accretion and reduction (e.g., cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis) during mammogenesis, lactogenesis, galactopoiesis, and mammary gland involution of events leading to and during the first and second lactation of normal and PUE-affected goats.
  • Document and quantify udder morphology dynamics by means of digitized visual information (pictures and ultrasound images) during development, lactation, and regression of the mammary gland of normal and PUE-affected goats.
  • Ascertain which of the common health parameters monitored in a dairy goat operation (i.e., somatic cell counts, mastitis, dystocia, abscesses, caprine arthritis encephalitis, and internal gastrointestinal parasite load) are associated with PUE.
  • Establish whether PUE has a temporary or permanent effect on the selected response variables and determine the correlation of the trait with their mother's milking ability.

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Title: Oregano Oil Dose Response to Control of Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Goats

Experiment Number: SH-06-15

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: S. P. Hart, Z. Wang, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Investigate the dose response of oregano oil on fecal egg hatching and larval development in goats and to monitor its effect on rumen microorganisms.

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Title: The Energy Cost of Grazing Activity in Goats Grazing Fescue/Bermudagrass Pastures at High and Low Stocking Rates

Experiment Number: AB-06-16

Project Number: US-3694-05 R

Investigators: A. Beker, A. L. Goetsch, A. Askar, A. Asmare, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, G. Detweiler, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

Overall objective: evaluate a system(s) to predict the energy cost for grazing activity for different breeds of goats and a breed of sheep that are grazing together. Specific objectives:

  • Determine effects of goat breed (Angora, Boer, and Spanish) and species (goats vs Rambouillet sheep) on metabolizable energy intake, energy used for grazing activity, grazing and walking times, and horizontal and vertical distances traveled, under varied pasture conditions.

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Title: The Relationship between Fasting Heat Production and Maintenance Energy Expenditure and Age in Boer and Spanish Goats

Experiment Number: AB-07-01

Project Number: US-3694-05 R

Investigators: A. Beker, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Characterize patterns of change with advancing age in the maintenance energy requirement of Boer and Spanish goats

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Title: Interplay in Energy Use by Splanchnic and Extra-Splanchnic Tissues of Locomotion and Forage Ingestion

Experiment Number: AA-07-02

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: I. Tovar-Luna, A. Asmare, R. Puchala, G. Detweiler, K. Tesfai, L. J. Dawson, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine influences on and interactions in whole body, splanchnic, and extra-splanchnic energy expenditure of meal size and walking.
  • Determine influences on whole body, splanchnic, and extra-splanchnic energy expenditure of walking and walking speed before, during, and after forage ingestion.

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Title: Effects of Genotype, Body Condition Score, and Concentrate Supplementation on the Grazing Activity Energy Cost of Goats

Experiment Number: AAR-07-03

Project Number: 2005-38814-16353

Investigators: A. Askar, A. L. Goetsch, A. Asmare, A. Beker, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, T. A. Gipson, G. Detweiler, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

Overall objective: Develop and evaluate a system to predict the energy cost for grazing activity for ruminants. Specific objectives:

  • Determine effects of meat goat breed (Boer and Spanish), low vs high initial body condition score, and concentrate supplementation on energy expenditure, metabolizable energy (ME) intake, ME used for grazing activity, grazing and walking times, and horizontal and vertical distances traveled.

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Title: Evaluation in Georgia of Methods to Predict the Grazing Activity Energy Cost of Goats

Experiment Number: AG-07-04

Project Number: 2005-38814-16353

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, B. Kouakou, R. Puchala, L. J. Dawson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Evaluate equations to predict the grazing activity energy cost of goats developed at Langston University in a different environment in Georgia at Fort Valley State University

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Title: Metabolism of Sheep and Two Goat Breeds in Response to Limited Feed Intake

Experiment Number: AA-07-05

Project Number: 2005-38814-16353

Investigators: A. Asmare, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, A. Askar, A. Beker, T. A. Gipson, L. J. Dawson, T. Sahlu, H. C. Freetly, and K. Tesfai

Objectives:

  • Determine potential differences between goats and sheep and between two goat genotypes in the ability to utilize low-energy diets by measurements, made with energy-adequate and -limiting forage-based diet, of: net flux across splanchnic tissues of nitrogen-containing metabolites as well as other metabolites such as glucose, volatile fatty acids, and oxygen to assess gut and liver energy use; whole body nitrogen and energy balances; extra-splanchnic tissue energy use; and whole body energy expenditure as the feeding period progresses.

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Title: Evaluating Bolus Features and Rumen pH on Retention Rate of Ruminal Boluses for the Electronic Identification of Different Goat Breeds under U.S. Conditions

Experiment Number: SC-07-06

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: S. Carne, T. A. M. Rovai, L. J. Dawson, and G. Caja

Objectives:

The general goal of the project is to evaluate the influence of physical features of ruminal boluses on their retention rate in different goat breeds raised in diverse production systems. Specific objectives are to:

  • Assess the influence of volume, weight, and specific gravity of boluses on their retention rate into the reticulo-rumen.
  • Evaluate the influence of a breed factor on the retention rate of ruminal boluses.
  • Determine the relationship between retention rate of ruminal boluses and the ruminal environment dependent on feeding management.

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Title: Copper Oxide Wire Particles as a Goat Dewormer

Experiment Number: SH-07-07

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: S. Hart and Z. Wang

Objectives:

  • Compare copper oxide wire capsules and Cydectin as dewormers in goat kids compared with no treatment.

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Title: Sericia Lespedeza as a Goat Dewormer

Experiment Number: SH-07-08

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: S. Hart, Z. Wang, and J. F. S. Ferreira

Objectives:

  • Investigate the level of Sericia lespedeza required for anthelmintic activity.
  • Investigate the anthelmintic potential of two Artimesia species.

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Title: The Effect of Dietary Protein on Tissue GSH Concentration and Cytokine Expression in Goats

Experiment Number: ZW-07-09

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: Z. Wang, S. Hart, R. C. Merkel, L. J. Dawson, T. Craig, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • To determine the effect of fish meal supplementation in goats on 1) GSH contents in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, blood, abomasum, and intestines; and 2) gene expression of cytokines (IL-2, -4, -5, -10, -13, and IFN- ), glutathione S-transferase, and growth factors (TGF- and IGF-I) in lymph nodes and spleen.

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Title: Characterization of Cytokine Gene Expression in PBMC Stimulated by H. Contortus Antigens

Experiment Number: ZW-07-10

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu, and T. M. Craig

Objectives:

  • Characterize the profile of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by H. contortus antigens, and to demonstrate the effects of garlic on expressions of these genes.

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Title: Effects of Garlic on Immunity in Male and Female Goats Infected with Nematode Parasites

Experiment Number: ZW-07-11

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: Z. Wang, S. P. Har, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • To determine effects of garlic on 1) fecundity of Haemonchus contortus in the gastrointestinal tract of goats; 2) immune responses of goats, measured by concentrations of antibodies (IgA, IgM, and IgG); and 3) cytokine gene expression.

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Title: Effect of Length of Pasture Access on the Grazing Activity Energy Cost in Boer Does during Different Stages of Production

Experiment Number: ITL-08-01

Project Number: US-Egypt S&T 58-3148-7-154

Investigators: I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, G. D. Detweiler, L. J. Dawson, K. Tesfai, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of "night-locking" or length of pasture access on the grazing activity energy cost of Boer goats in different stages of production (i.e., pregnant, lactating, dry, breeding periods) during a 1-year period.
  • Develop a simple means of predicting the grazing activity energy cost of goats based on factors relatively easily estimable by goat producers.

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Title: Evaluation of Flavonoid Supplementation for Long Term Storage and Subsequent Cryopreservation of Goat Semen Diluents

Experiment Number: PP-08-02

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: P.H. Purdy, T. A. Gipson, L. Hutchens, and E.R. Loetz

Objectives:

  • Determine the optimal dosage and type of flavonoid for holding goat sperm at 5ºC for 24 hours prior to cryopreservation.
  • Evaluate the effects of flavonoid treatment on goat sperm physiology.
  • Determine if flavonoid treatment influences fertility.

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Title: Effects of length of pasture access on the grazing activity energy cost in Boer does during different stages of production

Experiment Number: ITL-08-01

Project Number: BIO11-001-005

Investigators: I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch., R. Puchala, T, Gipson, G. Detweiler, L. J. Dawson, K. Tesfai, T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of ‘night-locking’ or length of pasture access on MEa of Boer goats in different stages of production (i.e., pregnant, lactating, dry, breeding periods) during a 1-year period.
  • Develop a simple means of predicting MEa of goats based on factors relatively easily estimable by goat producers.

 

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Title: Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats

Experiment Number: LW-08-03

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. Spicer, D. Bannerman, B. Bah, and E. Vasquez

Objectives:

  • Assess prevalence of subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in Alpine and Nubian goats during an entire lactation.

 

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Title: Development of a method to screen for cell mediated immune response to Coxiella burnetii in goats

Experiment Number: LD-08-04

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: L. J. Dawson, J. Ritchey, and E. Shaw

Objectives:

  • Identify goats which have previously been exposed to C. Burnetii and express a cell-mediated immune response to C. Burnetii antigen which is detectable by digital palpation
  • Determine whether an in vitro assay can be use dto screen goats for previous exposure to C. Burnetii by measuring specific inducible T-cell response to C. Burnetii antigen

 

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Title: Evaluate intra-operative and post-operative complications with three different methods of castration in goats

Experiment Number: LD-08-05

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: K. Simpson, C. Baumwart, L. J. Dawson, T. A. Gipson, J. Shumacher, T. Lehenbauer, A. L. Goetsch, and J. Hayes

Objectives:

  • Evaluate intra-operative and post-operative complications with three different methods of castration. The three methods include castration with a Henderson tool, emasculation, and banding. Evaluation of the patients after surgery will include pack cell volume, total protein, feed intake daily, weekly weight gain and feed efficiency.

 

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Title: Effects of gender and age on the maintenance energy requirement of Boer goats

Experiment Number: ITL-08-06

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, K. Tesfai, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of gender and age of Boer goats on a) fasting heat production, b) maintenance energy requirement, c) efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance, and d) efficiency of energy utilization for growth
  • Determine the relationship between heart rate and heat production measured in growing Boer goats with ad libitum consumption and when fed near maintenance and fasted

 

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Title: Development of a model to evaluate methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence for goat containment

Experiment Number: AG-08-07

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, J. Hayes, T. A. Gipson, L. J. Dawson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Develop and evaluate an accurate and repeatable method of evaluating methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence for goat containment

 

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Title: Use of mimosa as a protein bank for lactating meat goats

Experiment Number: AG-08-08

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, Z. Wang, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of once or twice weekly ‘protein bank’ grazing of pastures with mimosa trees on performance of meat goat does and suckling twin kids

 

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Title: Alternative dewormers for goats

Experiment Number: SH-08-09

Project Number: LU-4-19336

Investigators: S. P. Hart and Z. Wang

Objectives:

  • Investigate the efficacy of two levels of copper sulfate in deworming goats
  • Investigate the anthelmintic potential of Artimesia ludovisciana
  • Investigate the efficacy of black pepper and walnut hull extract on deworming goats

 

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Title: Accuracy and precision of fixes and calculated distances of GPS animal collars

Experiment Number: TG-09-01

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU05

Investigators: T. A. Gipson, I. Tovar-Luna, A. L. Goetsch, and G. D. Detweiler

Objectives:

  • Evaluate the accuracy and precision of post-differentially corrected and uncorrected stationary GPS collar fixes
  • Examine the effect of post-differential correction versus raw fix data on distance traveled on mobile GPS collars

 

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Title: An investigation on CNS bacteria related to subclinical mastitis

Experiment Number: LW-09-02

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, R. Shangguan, L. Spicer, and D. Bannerman

Objectives:

  • Test the impact of major types of CNS bacteria species causing intra-mammary infection (Staphylococcus epidermidis) on the inflammatory response in milk and blood
  • Investigate changes in the plasmin system and SCC of milk caused by subclinical mastitis to study the mechanism by which CNS bacteria affect caseinolysis

 

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Title: An investigation on CNS bacteria related to subclinical mastitis

Experiment Number: LW-09-03

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, R. Shangguan, L. Spicer, and D. Bannerman

Objectives:

  • Assess effects of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats on milk production, composition, and caseinolysis, milk coagulation properties, and curd yield and microstructure profiles

 

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Title: Effects of CNS bacteria induced subclinical mastitis on the gene profile of dairy goats and casein fractions and the plasmin system of goat milk

Experiment Number: RS-09-04

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: R. Shangguan, L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. J. Spicer, and C. DeWitt

Objectives:

  • Investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis caused by major types of CNS bacteria species (S. Epidermidis, S. Simulans, S. Caprae, and S. Chromogenes) on the plasmin system, casein fractions, the mechanism by which CNS affects caseinolysis, and gene profiles in Alpine and Nubian dairy goats

 

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Title: Effects of goat breed on energy expenditure during and after a low nutritional plane

Experiment Number: AH-09-05

Project Number: BIO12-001-016

Investigators: A. Helal, R. Puchala, G. D. Detweiler, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine how nutrient restriction impacts energy expenditure (EE) and the maintenance energy requjirement MEm ) with common goat breeds of the USA
  • Determine how adequate nutrient intake following nutrient restriction affects EE and MEm with common goat breeds of the USA
  • Use data from specific objectives 1 and 2 to develop a method of predicting the impact of low nutritional planes on MEm

 

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Title: Selection for residual feed intake in young Boer bucks - phase 1

Experiment Number: WH-09-06

Project Number: OKLXGIPSON2008

Investigators: W. Hu, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine and demonstrate efficacy of use of residual feed intake to achieve genetic progress in improving efficiency of feed utiliation without elevating mature size or body fatness compared with selection based on growth rate
  • Characterize relationships between residual feed intake and animal activities, feeding and social behaviors, and energy expenditure, and assess potential means of prediction of residual feed intake at an early age

 

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Title: Effects of garlic on performance of goats infected with nematodes

Experiment Number: ZW-09-07

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, L. J. Dawson, S. Hart, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of garlic on performance and fecundity of Haemonchus contortus in the gastrointestinal tract of goat does and their suckling kids

 

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Title: Effects of goat breed, diet, and age on skin chemical composition and the mechanical properties of resulting leather

Experiment Number: RM-09-08

Project Number: OKLXMERKEL2008

Investigators: R. C. Merkel, A. L. Goetsch, and T. A. Gipson

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of goat breed (Boer vs Spanish), diet (high and low nutritive plane), and age on skin chemical composition and the mechanical properties of resulting leather

 

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Title: Evaluate intra-operative and post-operative complications with three different methods of castration in goats

Experiment Number: LD-09-09

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: K. Simpson, C. Baumwart, L. J. Dawson, T. A. Gipson, J. Shumacher, T. Lehenbauer, A. L. Goetsch, and J. Hayes

Objectives:

  • Evaluate intra-operative and post-operative complications with three different methods of castration. The three methods include castration with a Henderson tool, emasculation, and banding. Evaluation of the patients after surgery will include pack cell volume, total protein, feed intake daily, weekly weight gain and feed efficiency.

 

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Title: Observations of effects of Carolina horsenettle on performance and immunity in goats infected with nematode parasites

Experiment Number: ZW-09-10

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of S. Carolinense on body weight change, immune responses (measured by concentrations of antibodies IgA, IgM, and IgG), and internal parasite load (measured by fecal egg count)

 

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Title: Management of lactating Alpine goats to minimize internal parasitism and the activity energy cost

Experiment Number: AK-09-11

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. Keli, A. L. Goetsch, Z. Wang, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, E. Loetz, J. Hayes, R. C. Merkel, G. D. Detweiler, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of different pasture access schemes conceivably impacting ingestion of infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and the activity energy cost on production and behavior of Alpine dairy goats

 

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Title: Effects of method of processing broiler litter on feed intake and performance by meat goat doelings

Experiment Number: AG-09-12

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, J. Hayes, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Compare feed intake, growth rate, and efficiency of feed utilization of meat goat doelings consuming diets with deep-stacked versus ensiled broiler litter

 

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Title: Observations of efficacy of anthelmintics in goats infected with nematode parasites

Experiment Number: ZW-10-02

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Z. Wang, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects on internal parasitism in Alpine dairy goats of treatment with Cydectin, Levasole, Valbazen, or different combinations of these products

 

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Title: Development of a model to evaluate methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence for goat containment – experimental design (study number 2)

Experiment Number: AG-10-03

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH10

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Compare Latin square and completely randomized design approaches

 

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Title: Testing efficacy of anthelmintic combinations

Experiment Number: SH-10-05

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, and Z. Wang

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of various levels and combinations of commercially available anthelmintics and copper oxide wire capsules on internal parasitism in goats

 

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Title: Comparison of nematode parasite-susceptibility and performance of Boer and Spanish goats supplemented with garlic

Experiment Number: ZW-10-06

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Compare performance and nematode-infection in Boer and Spanish goats and their suckling kids supplemented with garlic

 

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Title: Boer goat selection for residual feed intake

Experiment Number: AM-10-07

Project Number: OKLXGIPSON2008

Investigators: A. Manley, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine and demonstrate efficacy of use of residual feed intake to achieve genetic progress in improving efficiency of feed utilization without elevating mature size or body fatness compared with selection based on growth rate
  • Characterize relationships between residual feed intake and animal activities, feeding and social behaviors, and energy expenditure, and assess potential means of prediction of residual feed intake at an early age

 

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Title: Pregnancy rate following the use of chorionic gonadotropins and GnRH in an estrus/ovulation synchronization protocol for trans-cervical AI in cyclic goats

Experiment Number: EL-10-08

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: E. Loetz, L. J. Dawson, J. Hayes, and I. Portugal

Objectives:

  • Determine the influence of various gonadotropins and a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) on ovulation and which of these hormones provides the best kidding rate
  • Establish the pattern of hormonal secretion during the use of different E/OS protocols

 

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Title: Boer goat selection for residual feed intake

Experiment Number: AM-10-09

Project Number: OKLXGIPSON2008

Investigators: A. Manley, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine and demonstrate efficacy of use of residual feed intake to achieve genetic progress in improving efficiency of feed utilization without elevating mature size or body fatness compared with selection based on growth rate
  • Characterize relationships between residual feed intake and animal activities, feeding and social behaviors, and energy expenditure, and assess potential means of prediction of residual feed intake at an early age

 

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Title: Characterization of cytokine gene expression in PBMC stimulation by H. contortus antigens

Experiment Number: RZ-10-10

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Characterize the profile of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by H. contortus and to demonstrate the effects of garlic expression of these genes

 

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Title: Effects of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on viability of H. contortus and immune responses of white blood cells of goats in vitro

Experiment Number: RZ-11-03

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine whether EGCG exerts a direct inhibitory effect on the viability of third-stage larvae of H. contortus and whether such effects shows a dose-dependent manner in in vitro conditions using larval viability inhibitory assay (LVIA)
  • Detect cytokine production by white blood cells stimulated by EGCG
  • Observe whether changes in cytokine expression affect viability of third-stage larvae of H. contortus

 

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Title: Boer goat selection for residual feed intake

Experiment Number: AM-11-04

Project Number: OKLXGIPSON2008

Investigators: A. Manley, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine and demonstrate efficacy of use of residual feed intake to achieve genetic progress in improving efficiency of feed utilization without elevating mature size or body fatness compared with selection based on growth rate
  • Characterize relationships between residual feed intake and animal activities, feeding and social behaviors, and energy expenditure, and assess potential means of prediction of residual feed intake at an early age

 

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Title: Investigation of CNS bacteria related to subclinical mastitis

Experiment Number: LPW-11-05

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. J. Spicer, and C. DeWitt

Objectives:

  • Investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis caused by major types of CNS bacteria species (S. Epidermidis, S. Simulans, S. Caprae, and S. Chromogenes) on the plasmin system, casein fractions, the mechanism by which CNS affects caseinolysis, and gene profiles in Alpine and Nubian dairy goats

 

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Title: Investigation of CNS bacteria related to subclinical mastitis changes

Experiment Number: LPW-11-06

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. J. Spicer, and C. DeWitt

Objectives:

  • Assess effects of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats on milk production, composition, and caseinolysis, milk coagulation properties, and curd yield and microstructure profiles

 

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Title: Effects of CNS bacteria induced subclinical mastitis on gene profile of dairy goats and casein fractions and plasmin system of goat milk

Experiment Number: LPW-11-07

Project Number: OKLXSTEVEZENG2007

Investigators: L. Wang, S. Zeng, L. J. Spicer, and C. DeWitt

Objectives:

  • Investigate the effect of subclinical mastitis caused by major types of CNS bacteria species causing IMI (S. epidermidis, S. simulans, S. caprae, and S chromogenes) on plasmin system, casein graction, the mechanism by which CNS affects caseinolysis, and gene profiles in dairy goats of one research Alpine herd during a year-found lactation

 

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Title: Effects of level of ginger and rumen undegraded protein supplementation on intake, metabolism, and ruminal conditions in yearling meat goat doelings

Experiment Number: IR6-11-08

Project Number: OKLX-SALHU2

Investigators: A. Nauman, T. A. Shujaa, A. Mohammed, R. C. Merkel, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of dietary level of ginger and potential interactions with supplemental concentrate levels of rumen degraded and undegraded protein on intake, metabolism, and ruminal conditions in yearling meat goat doelings

 

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Title: Effects of levels of rumen degraded and undegraded protein on intake, digestion, energy expenditure, and performance of yearling Spanish wethers

Experiment Number: IR3-11-09

Project Number: OKLX-SALHU2

Investigators: A. Mohammed, T. A. Shujaa, A. Nauman, R. C. Merkel, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of dietary level of rumen degraded and undegraded protein on intake, metabolism, and performance of yearling Spanish wethers

 

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Title: Effects of arginine, glutamine, and cysteine on cytokine genes expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with third-stage H. contortus antigen

Experiment Number: RZ-11-10

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Characterize the profile of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by H. contortus antigens, and demonstrate the effects of garlic on expressions of these genes

 

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Title: Evaluation of the efficacy of colostrum replacer in dairy kids

Experiment Number: SH-11-12

Project Number: OKLX-SALHU2

Investigators: S. Hart and L. J. Dawson

Objectives:

  • Determine the efficacy of a commercially available bovine colostrum replacement product (Land O Lakes Colostrum Replacement manufactured by The Saskatoon Colostrum Co, Ltd, Saskatoon Canada) in neonatal goat kids

 

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Title: Development of a model to evaluate methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence for goat containment – preliminary adaptation, experimental design, and Latin square washout (study number 3)

Experiment Number: AG-11-13

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH10

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, T. Tsukahara, G. D. Detweiler, T. A. Gipson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine appropriateness of conditions preliminary adaptation procedures, experimental design [i.e., completely randomized design, Latin square, and repeated measures with a completely randomized design], and Latin square washout procedures) in a method to be developed for evaluating efficacy of electric fence additions to cattle barb wire fence for goat containment

 

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Title: Use of mimosa as a protein bank for lactating meat goats

Experiment Number: AG-11-14

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, G. D. Detweiler, Z. Wang, L. J. Dawson, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of once or twice weekly ‘protein bank’ grazing of pastures with mimosa trees on performance of meat goat does and suckling twin kids

 

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Title: Effects of arginine, glutamine, and cysteine on cytokine genes expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with third-stage H. contortus antigen

Experiment Number: RZ-11-15

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, E. Loetz, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine which mitogen (ConA, PHA, or LPS) is similar to H. contortus antigen in term of cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from neonatal and adult Alpine goats
  • Investigate effects of arginine, glutamine, and cysteine on cytokine genes expression in PBMC stimulated by H. contortus antigen

 

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Title: Investigation of anthelmintic properties of medicinal herbs in goats infected with nematode parasites

Experiment Number: RZ-11-16

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, D. Zhou, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine the anthelmintic efficacy of three medicinal herbs, Rheum palmatum L. (Da huang), Meliae cortex (ku lian pi), and Quisqualis indica L. (shi jun zi), in goats infected with Haemonchus contortus (estimated by FEC)

 

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Title: Influence of trace mineral supplementation on goat reproductive performance following estrus/ovulation synchronization and different sites of semen placement

Experiment Number: EL-11-17

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: E. Loetz, L. Dawson, A. L. Goetsch, S. Hart, D. Arrocha, I. Portugal, J. Hayes, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Evaluate the influence of two levels of a commercially available trace mineral supplement (Multimin-901) on rates of fertilization, ovulation, conception, and pregnancy following natural service or traditional transcervical AI or RamGo-aided intracervical

 

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Title: Optimum goat breeding time based on vaginal/cervical electrical resistance changes

Experiment Number: EL-11-18

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: E. Loetz, L. Dawson, D. Arrocha, I. Portugal, and J. Hayes

Objectives:

  • Establish if vaginal/cervical impedance changes during goat per-estrus are associated with changes in LH levels and ultrasound imaging detection of ovulation
  • Determine if vaginal/cervical impedance changes during goat peri-estrus can be used to predict time of ovulation

 

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Title: Effects of an enzyme additive on hay intake and fiber digestion

Experiment Number: SH-11-19

Project Number: OKLX-SALHU2

Investigators: S. Hart

Objectives:

  • Test effects of an enzyme additive on fiber digestion and intake in weaned Boer cross wethers

 

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Title: Effects of emodin on cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Haemonchus contortus antigen in vitro

Experiment Number: RZ-11-20

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: R. Zhong, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, T. Sahlu, and D. Zhou

Objectives:

  • Determine whether emodin can alter cytokine expression in PBMC stimulated by H. contortus L3 antigen

 

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Title: Effects of the number of animals per pen and time of automated feeder access on feed intake, efficiency of feed utilization, and feeding behavior by yearling Boer wethers

Experiment Number: YT-12-01

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objectives:

  • Determine effects of the number of animals per pen (maximal potential average feeder access per animal of 2 and 4 hours) and time of automated feeder access (continuous, night, and day) on feed intake, efficiency of feed utilization, and feeding behavior by yearling Boer wethers.

 

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Title: Evaluation of the efficacy of colostrum replacer in dairy kids

Experiment Number: SH-12-02

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU2

Investigators: S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, and D. Haiines

Objectives:

  • Evaluate the efficacy of a reformulated Land O'Lakes Kid's Choice Total CR as an antibody product for replacement of maternal colostrum in newborn kids.

 

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Title: Development of a Model to Evaluate Methods of Modifying Cattle Barb Wire Fence with Electric Fence Strands for Goat Containment – Effects of Exposure of Boer and Spanish Does to a Fence Only of Barb Wire Between Latin Square Periods (Study Number 4)

Experiment Number: YT-12-04

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH10

Investigators: Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, J. Hayes, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine appropriateness of conditions in a method to be developed for evaluating efficacy of electric fence additions to cattle barb wire fence for goat containment. Specific objectives are to determine effects of a washout treatment of exposure to a fence of barb wire only between measurement periods of a 5 × 5 Latin square on behavior of Boer and Spanish does in evaluation pens with different electric fence strand treatments.

 

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Title: Development of a model to evaluate methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence with electric fence strands for goat containment - effects of breed, method of adaptation, and repeated exposure to electric fence strands on behavior of Boer and Spanish kids in evaluation pens with a complete randomized design

Experiment Number: YT-12-06

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH10

Investigators: Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, J. Hayes, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • General: Determine appropriateness of conditions in a method to be developed for evaluating efficacy of electric fence additions to cattle barb wire fence for goat containment
  • Specific: Determine effects of different pre-trial or pre-treatment adaptation procedures on behavior of Spanish and Boer kids in evaluation pens with different electric fence strand treatments as well as use of a repeated measurement period after a relatively long interval

 

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Title: Effects of level of a source of brackish groundwater on feed intake, digestion, and efficiency of energy utilization by Boer and Spanish goat wethers

Experiment Number: YT-12-07

Project Number: OKLX-SAHLU

Investigators: Y. Tsukara, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Determine effects of level of a source of brackish groundwater on feed intake, digestion, and efficiency of energy utilization by Boer goats

 

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Title: Investigation of efficacy of Rumatel and Valbazen for control of anthelmintic resistant worms

Experiment Number: SH-12-08

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU12

Investigators: S. P. Hart, T. A. Gipson, Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine if feeding Rumatel for an extended period of time will remove resistant worms from animals and if Valbazen is necessary to achieve the desired level of efficacy

 

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Title: Sustainable small ruminant production through selection for resistance to internal parasites – on-farm and on-station selection and use of a small ruminant central performance test in year 1

Experiment Number: YT-13-02 and YT-13-03

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU12

Investigators: Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, Z. Wang, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Specific: Develop and implement first year activities of the second generation central performance test including larval challenge, female selection ‘on-farm’ and ‘on-station,’ establishment of breeding groups, and the first year breeding.

 

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Title: Methods of estimating the grazing activity energy cost of goats

Experiment Number: ME-13-04

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU2012

Investigators: M.-E. Brassard, R. Puchala, T. A Gipson, Y. Tsukahara, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Compare and determine advantages and disadvantages of different methods of estimating the grazing activity energy cost of goats.

 

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Title: Development of a model to evaluate methods of modifying cattle barb wire fence with electric fence strands for goat containment – effects of mixing different breeds of mature and growing meat goats on behavior

Experiment Number: YT-13-05 and YT-13-10

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH10

Investigators: Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, J. Hayes, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine if maintaining Boer and Spanish goats (mature and growing) together or separately during adaptation and evaluation periods affects behavior when exposed to different electric fence strand additions to cattle barb wire fence for goat containment

 

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Title: A series of trials evaluating various aspects of mortality composting conducted by three students from the University of Puerto Rico – Mayagüez

Experiment Number: UPRM-13-06

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU2012

Investigators: R. C. Merkel, T. A. Gipson, M. Negron, A. Reyes, and E. Pacheco

Objective:

  • Experiment 1 - Effect of ambient temperature and time before measuring surface temperature on infrared temperature measurement of reinforcing bar
  • Experiment 2 – Evaluating the accuracy of using RB and an infrared thermometer versus long-stemmed thermometers in working mortality compost piles
  • Experiment 3 – Evaluating the use of trash barrels as a vessel to compost kid mortality

 

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Title: Effects of forage quality on feedstuff associative effects in growing and yearling meat goats

Experiment Number: AT-13-07

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU2012

Investigators: A. Tera, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, Y. Tsukahara, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Characterize negative associative effects in meat goats of different ages of a concentrate supplement as affected by quality of the basal forage diet

 

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Title: Effects of Haemonchus contortus infection on nutritional status and peripheral blood immune cells in goats

Experiment Number: ZS-13-09

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: Z. Sun, Z. Wang, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, K. Tesfai, S. P. Hart, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Compare the nutritional status (free amino acids and minerals in plasma) and immune parameters in goats with different nematode burdens, as determined by fecal egg counts

 

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Title: Applied model for evaluating resilience of sheep and goats to a limited nutritional plane

Experiment Number: AG-13-11

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH2013

Investigators: A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, A. Tera, T. A. Gipson, Z. Wang, T. Sahlu, and L. J. Dawson

Objective:

  • Establish an applied model for evaluating resilience of sheep and goats to a limited nutritional plane.

 

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Title: Applied model for evaluating resilience of sheep and goats to a restricted water availability

Experiment Number: MU-14-01

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH2013

Investigators: M. Urge, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, I. Portugal, T. A. Gipson, Z. Wang, T. Sahlu, and L. J. Dawson

Objective:

  • Establish an applied model for evaluating resilience of sheep and goats to restricted water availability

 

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Title: Investigation of efficacy of Rumatel and copper oxide wire particles for control of anthelmintic resistant worms

Experiment Number: SH-14-03

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU12

Investigators: S. P. Hart, T. A. Gipson, Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, Z. Wang, T. Sahlu, and Y. Guo

Objective:

  • 1) Investigate if feeding Rumatel for an extended period is an essential component of a protocol of removing highly resistant worms from goats
  • 2) Investigate the potential of copper oxide wire particles for component of a protocol to remove highly resistant worms from goats

 

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Title: Sustainable small ruminant production through selection for resistance to internal parasites – on-farm and on-station selection and use of a small ruminant central performance test in year 1

Experiment Number: YT-14-04

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU12

Investigators: Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, Z. Wang, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • General: Determine early progress in selection of small ruminants for resistance to internal parasitism ‘on-farm’ and ‘on-station’ in the southeast and south-central US; characterize ‘on-farm’ and ‘on-station’ performance due to selection of small ruminants for resistance to internal parasites; and develop and implement a new second generation central sire performance test for small ruminants, focusing on resistance to internal parasites, but also retaining attention to feed intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization
  • Specific: Specific objectives are to determine phenotypic diversity of resistance to internal parasitism, such as through FEC, FAMACHA score, and immunoglobulin concentrations in serum and growth performance among the resistant groups for each flock/herd established last year, in addition to implementation of the second generation central performance test including larval challenge, female selection ‘on-farm’ and ‘on-station,’ establishment of breeding groups, and the first and second year breedings

 

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Title: Effects of restricted periods of diet access on production by lactating dairy goats

Experiment Number: NS-14-06

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU2012

Investigators: N. C. D. Silva, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, I. Portugal, A. Manley, E. Loetz, Y. Tsukahara, L. J. Dawson, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Determine effects of different types of restricted feed access on feed intake, milk yield and composition, efficiency of feed utilization, and feeding behavior of lactating Alpine dairy goats

 

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Title: Effects of Haemonchus contortus antigen on eosinophil reactive oxygen species generation and cytokine gene expression in goats in vitro

Experiment Number: YG-14-07

Project Number: OKLXWANG10

Investigators: Y. Guo, Z. Wang, A. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Determine whether Haemonchus contortus antigens can directly induce reactive oxygen species generation by peripheral blood eosinophils and characterize the profile of cytokine gene expression in eosinophils stimulated by H. contortus antigens

 

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Title: A method of evaluating resilience of sheep and goats to high heat load

Experiment Number: MU-14-08

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH2013

Investigators: M. Urge, A. L. Goetsch, R. Puchala, I. Portugal, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, and L. J. Dawson

Objective:

  • Establish an applied model for evaluating resilience of sheep and goats to high heat load index

 

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Title: I. Efficiency and quality profile of retrieved goat embryos from double short estrus synchronization protocol II. Reproductive performance of embryos retrieved non-surgically compared to standard surgical procedures and transferred using a modified mini-laparotomy or laparoscopic technique

Experiment Number: EL-14-09

Program: USDA Foreign Agriculture Service (FAS) Borlaug Fellow

Investigators: E. Loetz, B. S. Muasa, L. J. Dawson, and B. Morris

Objective:

  • 1) Determine the effect of the double short estrus synchronization procedure and the multiple ovulation protocol on the cervix response
  • 2) Compare the double short estrus synchronization to the standard surgical procedure on the method efficiency and quality profile of retrieved embryos
  • 3) Compare the reproductive performance of goats receiving embryos generated by the double short estrus synchronization or the standard surgical procedure
  • 4) Determine the effect of the mini laparotomy or laparoscopic embryo deposition on reproductive efficiency of embryo recipients.

 

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Title: Reproductive performance of synchronized goats inseminated laparascopically, transcervically, or by natural service in the absence of a large ovarian follicle

Experiment Number: EL-14-10

Program: USDA Foreign Agriculture Service (FAS) Borlaug Fellow

Investigators: E. Loetz, B. S. Muasa, L. J. Dawson, A. Manley, and B. Morris

Objective:

  • 1) Determine the effect on reproductive performance of day 0 hormonal synchronization of non- superovulated goats bred by AI (i.e., transcervically or laparoscopically-aided intrauterine) compared to natural service
  • 2) Compare reproductive performance of goats not induced for multiple ovulation and bred using the ‘day 0’ or the traditional intermediate progesterone exposure protocols for estrus/ovulation synchronization.

 

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Title: Intake of red cedar by goats

Experiment Number: SH-15-01

Project Number: OKLUSHART2014

Investigators: S. Hart and T. A. Gipson

Objective:

  • Develop a near-infrared reflectance spectrophotometry method of predicting red cedar intake from fecal samples .

 

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Title: Effects of initial body condition and diet nutritive value on performance by lactating dairy goats

Experiment Number: LR-15-02

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU2012

Investigators: L. P. S. Ribeiro, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, T. Sahlu, I. Portugal, A. Manley, E. Loetz, L. J. Dawson, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Determine effects and interactions of initial body condition and diet nutritive value on performance and associated conditions by Alpine goats in early and mid-lactation

 

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Title: Effects of method of intermittent supplementation of growing meat goat kids with the tree legume mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)

Experiment Number: SPL-15-03

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU2012

Investigators: S. P. Lama, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, I. Portugal, T. Sahlu, Z. Wang, J. D. Hayes, G. E. Aiken, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Determine effects of supplementation with the tree legume mimosa (Albizia julibrissin) by periodic access to pastures with live trees compared with a cut-and-carry approach on performance, nutrient utilization, and behavior of young growing meat goats

 

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Title: Quantifying IgG in goat colostrum using a Brix refractometer

Experiment Number: RO-15-04

Program: Oklahoma State University, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences

Investigators: R. Oman, R. Streeter, and L. J. Dawson

Objective:

  • Validate the use of a digital Brix refractometer for quantifying IgG in first-milking goat colostrum samples

 

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Title: Effects of restricted periods of diet access on production by dairy goats in mid- to late lactation

Experiment Number: NS-15-05

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU2012

Investigators: N. C. D. Silva, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, T. Sahlu, I. Portugal, A. Manley, E. Loetz, Y. Tsukahara, L. J. Dawson, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Determine effects of different types of restricted feed access on feed intake, milk yield and composition, efficiency of feed utilization, and feeding behavior of Alpine dairy goats in early to mid-lactation

 

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Title: Sustainable small ruminant production through selection for resistance to internal parasites – on-farm and on-station selection and use of a small ruminant central performance test in year 3

Experiment Number: YT-15-06

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU12

Investigators: Y. Tsukahara, A. L. Goetsch, T. A. Gipson, S. P. Hart, L. J. Dawson, Z. Wang, R. Puchala, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • General: Determine early progress in selection of small ruminants for resistance to internal parasitism ‘on-farm’ and ‘on-station’ in the southeast and south-central US; characterize ‘on-farm’ and ‘on-station’ performance due to selection of small ruminants for resistance to internal parasites; and develop and implement a new second generation central sire performance test for small ruminants, focusing on resistance to internal parasites, but also retaining attention to feed intake, average daily gain, and efficiency of feed utilization
  • Specific: Specific objectives are to determine phenotypic diversity of resistance to internal parasitism, such as through FEC, FAMACHA score, and immunoglobulin concentrations in serum and growth performance among the resistant groups for each flock/herd established in the preceding year, in addition to implementation of the second generation central performance test including larval challenge, female selection ‘on-farm’ and ‘on-station,’ establishment of breeding groups, and the second and third year breeding

 

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Title: Comparison of biological control of red cedar with goats to conventional methods of control

Experiment Number: SH-15-07

Project Number: OKLUSHART2014

Investigators: S. Hart, M. Sawalhah, T. Gipson, R. Merkel, and C. Williams

Objective:

  • Overall: Learn more about factors affecting cedar consumption so that goats can be used more effectively to control red cedar and to transfer this knowledge to property managers who need it.
  • Specific:
    1. Develop NIR prediction equations using fecal samples to predict consumption of red cedar and use browse samples to predict terpene content and consumption of browse
    2. Measure the degree of control of red cedar by goats
    3. Examine the effect of seasonal changes in terpenes on intake of red cedar
    4. Compare the cost of control of red cedar by goats vs. conventional methods
    5. Organize state-wide meetings for land managers and cattlemen to showcase red cedar control using goats and discuss how goats can be used for controlling red cedar

 

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Title: Effects of salinity of drinking water on feed intake, digestion, and efficiency of energy utilization by Katahdin sheep wethers and Boer goat wethers of different ages

Experiment Number: HY-15-10

Project Number: OKLXSAHLU2012

Investigators: H. Yirga, R. Puchala, I. Portugal, D. Tadesse, S. LeShure, Y. Tsukahara, L. J. Dawson, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Determine effects of level of a brackish water source and increased levels of total dissolved solids in saline drinking water on feed intake, digestion, efficiency of energy utilization, ruminal methane emission, and ruminal and blood constituent levels in mature Katahdin sheep wethers compared with mature and growing Boer goat wethers

 

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Title: Evaluation of resilience of hair sheep breeds from different regions of the USA to high heat load – trial 1 and animal set 1

Experiment Number: DT-15-12

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH2013

Investigators: D. Tadesse, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, L. J. Dawson, Z. Wang, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Evaluate resilience to high heat load index of three hair sheep breeds (Dorper, Katahdin, and St. Croix), four ecotypes from different eco-climate domains of the USA (Upper Midwest, Central Texas, Southeast, Pacific Northwest), and individual animals

 

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Title: Comparison of cytokine gene profiles in parasitic antigen-stimulated white blood cells from different breeds of hair sheep

Experiment Number: AH-15-13

Project Number: OKLXGOETSCH2013

Investigators: D. Tadesse, R. Puchala, T. A. Gipson, L. J. Dawson, Z. Wang, T. Sahlu, and A. L. Goetsch

Objective:

  • Characterize cytokine gene expression in white blood cells stimulated with antigen of Haemonchus contortus of individual hair sheep of three breeds (Dorper, Katahdin, and St. Croix) and four ecotypes from different climatic zones of the USA (Upper Midwest, Central Texas, Southeast, Pacific Northwest)

 

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Title: Effects of forage quality and breed on rumination time in goats

Experiment Number: SL-15-14

Project Number: OKLUTGIPSON2014

Investigators: S. LeShure, T. A. Gipson, R. Puchala, A. L. Goetsch, and T. Sahlu

Objective:

  • Model rumination time using rumen bolus, pressure sensitive nosebands, visual and video observation in goats.

 

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